Glossary: Common Words and Phrases
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- 19th Amendment: "The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex. Congress shall have the power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation." (Added to the U.S. Constitution in 1920.)
- Admonishment: An authoritative statement made to the jury by the court regarding their conduct as jurors.
- Anonymous: When someone's identity is kept unknown.
- Ascertained: Determined; proved to be true.
- Bailiff: An officer from the sheriff's department or court who maintains courtroom order and jury custody.
- Beyond a Reasonable Doubt: In a criminal case the accused's guilt must be established "beyond a reasonable doubt." Proof beyond a reasonable doubt is proof that leaves you with an abiding conviction that the charge is true.
- Challenges: The law authorizes the judge and the lawyers to excuse individual jurors from service in a particular case for various reasons. If a lawyer wishes to have a juror excused, he or she must use a "challenge" for that juror. Challenges, or reasons to dismiss a juror, are of two kinds:
- For Cause: The law sets forth a number of reasons why jurors may be excused "for cause." For example, a juror who is related to or employed by one of the parties in the case may be excused for cause. There is no limit to the number of for cause challenges that may be used.
- Peremptory: Each side in a case has a certain number of challenges that can be used without giving a reason. These are called peremptory challenges. Each side may ask the judge to excuse particular jurors. If a juror is excused, this does not imply something bad and does not mean the juror is not competent in any way. It frequently happens that a prospective juror will be excused in a certain case and be accepted in another at a later date. The number of peremptory challenges has been established by the Legislature.
- Civil Case/Civil Suit: A lawsuit is called a civil case when it is between two or more individuals or corporations involved in a dispute and usually seeking a judgment awarding monetary damages.
- Common Law: The body of law derived from judicial decisions, rather than from statutes or constitutions.
- Compulsory: Compelled; mandated by legal process or by statute.
- Constitution: The fundamental law of our nation that establishes the conception, character, and organization of its sovereign power and the manner of its exercise. Also, the document that contains the guiding rules and principles, the descriptions of the power of the government, and the essential rights of the people of a country or state or other governing collective.
- Controversy: A disagreement or a dispute that requires a definitive determination of how the law applies to the facts that are asserted to be true.
- Counsel: One or more lawyers who represent a client.
- Criminal Prosecution/Criminal Case: The act of pursuing a criminal trial, where the state charges someone with a crime.
- Degree of Proof: The amount of proof necessary to prove a case. In a criminal case such proof must be beyond a reasonable doubt. In civil cases the standard is by a preponderance of the evidence.
- Deliberations: This is when a jury goes into the jury room to think about and discuss evidence and testimony to reach a verdict in a civil or criminal case.
- Directed Verdict: After evidence has been presented and if no issue of fact remains for the jury to determine, the judge will tell the jury what verdict to return. The jury must return that verdict.
- Disqualification: The condition of having been rendered unfit.
- Eligible/Eligibility: Every person who is at least 18 years of age, a citizen of the United States, and a resident of the respective county, able to understand the English language, not currently serving on any other jury, and who is not serving a sentence as a felon is eligible to serve as a juror (MCL 600.1307(a)).
- Evidence: Any type of proof that is legally presented at trial through witnesses, records, and/or exhibits.
- Exemptions/Excuses/Postponements: By law, no one who meets the basic criteria is automatically exempted from service. The law does provide for hardship excuses. Hardship is defined by law and includes no reasonable transportation, excessive travel, extreme financial burden, undue risk to physical property, physical or mental impairment or over age 70, public health and safety, or no alternate care for another. If you believe you fall in any of these categories, contact your local contact your district court jury office or your circuit court jury office. Postponement may be available if you have health problems, a paid vacation, or other personal commitments that cannot be rescheduled at the time you are initially called. If you have already received one postponement during the past 12 months, you will probably have to come to court and speak to a judge to further delay your service.
- Exhibit: An exhibit is a document or material object produced and identified in court for the purpose of introducing it as evidence in a case. Each of these documents or objects is ordinarily given an identifying letter or number in alphabetical or numerical sequence before it is offered as evidence.
- Felon: A person who has been convicted of a serious criminal offense punishable by imprisonment exceeding one year.
- Foreperson: At the beginning of deliberations, the jury votes to select one of its members to be the foreperson. The jury foreperson's duty is to see that discussion during deliberations is carried on in a free and orderly manner, that the case and issues are fully and freely discussed, and that every juror is given a chance to participate in the discussion. As the deliberations conclude, the foreperson counts the votes and completes and signs the verdict form.
- Impartial: Without bias, prejudice, or other preconception. The members of a jury should have no opinion or vested interest about a case at the start of the trial and should base their verdict on competent legal evidence presented during the trial.
- Instruction: The guidelines given by the judge at the beginning and end of a trial that explain what the law in the case is and how the jurors should evaluate the evidence.
- Jury Pool: The group of prospective qualified jurors appearing for assignment to trial jury panels.
- Jury Summons: The papers sent to potential jurors that require their attendance in court for possible service on a jury. Michigan courts do not summon jurors to the courthouse more than once in any given 12-month period.
- Jury Selection: The process by which jurors for a particular trial are selected from the larger group of potential jurors summoned to the courthouse. The trial court judge sends a request to the jury assembly room for a panel of prospective jurors to begin the jury selection process in his or her courtroom. Once the jurors arrive in the courtroom, the judge and lawyers ask the jurors questions for the purpose of determining whether jurors are free of bias, or prejudice, or whether there exists any matter that might interfere with their ability to be fair and impartial.
- Litigants: Any persons or groups engaged in a lawsuit.
- Michigan Court Rules: The rules that regulate the practices and procedures in state court.
- Pending: In process; not yet decided.
- Perjury: A false statement made willfully and knowingly while under oath in a court proceeding.
- Polled/Polling: Calling the names of the jurors and having them state what their final verdict is before it is recorded. This can be done individually or collectively.
- Postpone: To put off until a later time.
- Postponement: Permission to put off serving as a juror until a later time. A postponement may be available if you have health problems, a paid vacation, or other personal commitments that cannot be rescheduled at the time you are initially called for jury service. See also exemptions/excuses.
- Preponderance of the Evidence: Greater weight of evidence, or evidence that is more credible and convincing. Refers to the amount of proof required to win in a civil case. It is that degree of proof that is more probable than not. A lower standard than that which is required in criminal cases.
- Propound: To offer for discussion or consideration.
- Prosecutions: Legal proceedings.
- Prospective: Likely to come about, relating to or effective in the future.
- Reimbursement: Specific payment for out-of-pocket expenses. For example, the state pays jurors $.10 a mile (round trip) for travel.
- Sequestration: A sequestered jury is usually housed together in a hotel and prohibited from contacting people outside of the court. Sequestration rarely occurs and is meant for jurors' protection. It is used to keep the jurors away from the media during a controversial trial where widespread media coverage could influence a juror's decision. In rare cases, there may be attempts to influence the jurors' deliberation through threats.
- Source List: The list or lists from which citizens are selected to receive a jury summons. Potential jurors are selected randomly from the Department of Vehicles' lists of drivers and identification card holders, as required by law.
- Subpoena: A subpoena is an official order to attend court at a stated time. The most common use of the subpoena is to summon witnesses to court for the purpose of testifying in a trial.
- Testimony: Evidence given by a witness under oath.
- Unable to Serve: If you have health problems, a paid vacation, or other personal commitments that cannot be rescheduled at the time you are initially called, a postponement may be available. If you have already received one postponement during the past 12 months, you will probably have to come to court and speak to a judge to further delay your service.
- Unanimous: There are 12 people on a jury trial, except when the parties in civil or misdemeanor cases agree that there may be fewer than 12. After the full jury in a criminal case, or three-fourths of them in a civil case, have agreed upon a verdict, the verdict is considered unanimous and the jury is brought back into the courtroom, where their foreperson reads the verdict. The verdict has to be in writing, signed by the foreperson, and must be read to the jury by the court clerk or the judge.
- Verdict: The formal decision or finding made by a jury, which has been impaneled and sworn for the trial of a case, and reported to the court.
- Voir Dire: Translated from the French, means 'to speak the truth.' With regard to juries it is a preliminary examination of prospective jurors by a judge or lawyer to decide whether that person is qualified to serve on a jury.
- Witness: One who can give a firsthand account of something seen, heard, or experienced.